Publications of Andrea Krizsan
The quality of gender equality policies. A discursive approach
Can quality of gender+ equality policies be defined in ways that apply across different policy contexts and different policy moments? In light of different scholarly debates and empirical material from gender violence policy debates in Southern and Central Eastern Europe, this paper discusses dilemmas around defining the quality of gender+ equality policies. It proposes a two dimensional model. The first dimension links quality to procedural aspects: empowerment of women’s rights advocates at different stages of the policy process, and transformation with reference to prevailing contextual legacies. The second dimension is more substantive, and includes genderedness, intersectionality, and structurally transformative focus of policies. The paper illustrates how within the framework set by these criteria, quality of gender equality policies is constructed through policy debates in ways that are dependent on the different discursive, institutional, and structural factors specific to various policy contexts.
Equality Architectures in Central and Eastern European Countries: A Framework for Analyzing Political Intersectionality in Europe
Equality institutions are major arenas for analyzing political intersectionality. This article looks at equality institutions in the context of European equality policy changes since 2000 and argues for an institutional typology that differentiates gender equality machineries from anti-discrimination bodies and consultative equality bodies. These functionally different equality institutions build up into larger equality institutional architectures in which the different components serve complementary strategies in pursuing complex gender equality policies. Equality institutional architectures vary in how they institutionalize the relationships between gender inequality and other inequality categories. Layered, hierarchical, and integrated models of equality institutional architectures are identified as different in institutionalizing the intersections and hierarchies of different inequality axes. The article argues that analyzing equality institutions through such a conceptual framework contributes to a more nuanced research agenda for analyzing intersectionality in policy practice, one that could be applicable, beyond equality institutions, also to the analysis of policy texts and civil society mobilization patterns. The article illustrates the developed conceptual framework through a comparative analysis of gender equality institutional architectures emerging in the last twenty years in the ten new European Union member states of Central and Eastern Europe.
Europeanization in Making Policies against Domestic Violence in Central and Eastern Europe
This article looks at how Europe matters in the development of policies against domestic violence, a gender equality field outside the core European Union (EU) conditionality criteria. By analyzing the concrete workings and uses of Europe’s domestic violence policy-making in five Central and Eastern European countries, it identifies three mechanisms of Europeanization in the field and shows how together they work to expand the reach of the EU to this policy realm. The findings point toward an understanding of Europeanization based on social learning and dynamic, interactive processes of constructing what membership in the EU means in terms of domestic violence policy processes.
Gender Equality Policy or Gender Mainstreaming? The Case of Hungary on the Road to an Enlarged Europe
The aim of this article is to analyze some of the core conceptual and implementation issues underpinning the process of introducing gender mainstreaming strategy in Hungary. It examines the approach of Hungarian policy makers to gender mainstreaming and evaluates the political framing of some crucial aspects of gender equality. Our argument in this article is twofold. First, we observe that the concept of gender mainstreaming as a cross-sectoral and comprehensive policy tool for achieving gender equality has only been sporadically present and this has mostly been located at the rhetorical level. Hungary has no comprehensive gender equality strategy and no distinctive gender equality policy instruments currently in place. Rather, the promotion of equal opportunity on all grounds has become a powerful policy approach in the last two to three years, often neglecting the specific requirements of gender equality. Secondly, we argue that the influence of the European Union (EU) accession process has had two stages, as far as gender equality policy is concerned in Hungary. The first stage, has referred primarily to the de jure harmonization of Hungarian legislation with relevant EU directives, but has brought very little harmonization at the policy level, and brought limited de facto realization of the rights imposed by the directives. The second stage, identified from mid-2003, is coterminous with Hungary joining the different EU level policy processes. This second stage signaled a shift from legislative harmonization to a more focused policy approach. This stage may be characterized as a direct process of EU-isation on Hungarian policy concepts and tools, such as gender mainstreaming. However, it is too early to judge the practical implications of this development.